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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Electrical and Computer Engineering

There are 508 publications in this collection, published between 1997 and 2024.
Recent Work (93)
90 more worksshow all
Electrical and Computer Engineering - Open Access Policy Deposits (412)

SMT-Based Observer Design for Cyber-Physical Systems Under Sensor Attacks

We introduce a scalable observer architecture to estimate the states of a discrete-time linear-time-invariant (LTI) system whose sensors can be manipulated by an attacker. Given the maximum number of attacked sensors, we build on previous results on necessary and sufficient conditions for state estimation, and propose a novel multi-modal Luenberger (MML) observer based on efficient Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solving. We present two techniques to reduce the complexity of the estimation problem. As a first strategy, instead of a bank of distinct observers, we use a family of filters sharing a single dynamical equation for the states, but different output equations, to generate estimates corresponding to different subsets of sensors. Such an architecture can reduce the memory usage of the observer from an exponential to a linear function of the number of sensors. We then develop an efficient SMT-based decision procedure that is able to reason about the estimates of the MML observer to detect at runtime which sets of sensors are attack-free, and use them to obtain a correct state estimate. We provide proofs of convergence for our algorithm and report simulation results to compare its runtime performance with alternative techniques. Our algorithm scales well for large systems (including up to 5000 sensors) for which many previously proposed algorithms are not implementable due to excessive memory and time requirements. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on the design of resilient power distribution systems.

Patient-level thyroid cancer classification using attention multiple instance learning on fused multi-scale ultrasound image features.

For patients with thyroid nodules, the ability to detect and diagnose a malignant nodule is the key to creating an appropriate treatment plan. However, assessments of ultrasound images do not accurately represent malignancy, and often require a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Deep learning techniques can classify thyroid nodules from ultrasound images, but current methods depend on manually annotated nodule segmentations. Furthermore, the heterogeneity in the level of magnification across ultrasound images presents a significant obstacle to existing methods. We developed a multi-scale, attention-based multiple-instance learning model which fuses both global and local features of different ultrasound frames to achieve patient-level malignancy classification. Our model demonstrates improved performance with an AUROC of 0.785 (p<0.05) and AUPRC of 0.539, significantly surpassing the baseline model trained on clinical features with an AUROC of 0.667 and AUPRC of 0.444. Improved classification performance better triages the need for biopsy.

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