We investigated whether apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides 4F and 6F can be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce blood and gut bioactive lipids, proinflammatory effects of endotoxin (LPS) and aberrant activation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) as instigators of increased risk for cardiometabolic disease in chronic treated HIV.
We used two humanized murine models of chronic treated HIV infection (n = 109 mice) and gut explants from HIV infected (n = 10) persons to determine whether Tg6F and 4F attenuate in vivo and ex vivo increased blood and gut bioactive lipids (measured by mass spectrometry) and intestinal protein levels of COX-2 (measured by immunoassays) in chronic treated HIV.
In these models of HIV, when compared to HIV-1 infected mice on antiretroviral therapy (ART) alone, oral Tg6F in combination with ART attenuated increases in plasma and gut bioactive lipids (and particularly COX lipids) and intestinal COX-2. 4F and Tg6F also reduced ex vivo production of COX-2 protein and associated secretion of bioactive lipids in gut explants from HIV-1 infected persons treated with LPS.
ApoA-I mimetics favorably impact the proinflammatory effects of LPS, COX-2 and production of bioactive lipids that collectively drive gut and systemic inflammation in chronic treated HIV. Given prior experimental evidence that the proinflammatory effects of LPS, COX-2 and gut dysfunction contribute to cardiometabolic syndrome in chronic HIV, apoA-I mimetic peptides may be a novel therapy to treat cardiometabolic syndrome in chronic HIV.