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UCOP Previously Published Works

Cover page of Nothing succeeds like success: An approach for evaluating digital preservation efficacy

Nothing succeeds like success: An approach for evaluating digital preservation efficacy

(2018)

Digital preservation encompasses the theory and practice ensuring purposeful future use of digital resources. But how can one tell whether it has been effective or not? The evaluation of preservation efficacy has two dimensions: trustworthiness of managerial programs and systems; and successful use of managed resources. While the former has received extensive attention, the latter has been little investigated. This stems from an insufficiently broad conceptualization of the preservation enterprise, which should be viewed expansively as facilitating meaningful human communication across time and concomitant cultural distance. Communicological analysis leads to a semiotic-phenomenological model for preservation-enabled communication cognizant of the elusive nature of use, which is inherently contingent with respect to time, place, person, and purpose. Preservation success is positioned as an individual, rather than universal value, with a benchmark evaluation of situational verisimilitude, rather than absolute fidelity to an illusory canonical state and information experience. The proposed evaluative approach provides new conceptual clarity to preservation theory and practice, a more rigorous basis for illuminating the limits of preservation efficacy, and a more nuanced means of stating, measuring, and evaluating preservation intentions, expectations, and outcomes.

Cover page of Theorizing success: Measures for evaluating digital preservation efficacy

Theorizing success: Measures for evaluating digital preservation efficacy

(2018)

Digital information is indispensable to contemporary commerce, culture, science, and education. No future understanding of a prior time in the digital age is possible without proactive preservation of our digital heritage. But how can one know whether or not that preservation has been effective? There are two primary assessments of digital preservation efficacy: trustworthiness of managerial systems and programs, and successful use of preserved resources. The first has received extensive treatment in the literature, but the second has been little investigated. This stems from a too narrow conceptualization of the preservation domain as synonymous with data management. Given that the goal of that management is to facilitate future use, and that use is inherently contingent with respect to time, place, person, and purpose, digital preservation should be seen more broadly as facilitating human communication across time. My research asks what measures can meaningful evaluate the efficacy of such communicative acts. It proposes a communicological theory in which success is evaluated with regard to situational verisimilitude. Evaluation metrics are derived from a semiotic-phenomenological model of preservation-enabled communication and the affordances supported by preserved digital resources. This work contributes new conceptual clarity to the theory and practice of digital preservation, a more rigorous basis for demarcating the limits of preservation efficacy, and a more nuanced means of stating, measuring, and evaluating intentions, expectations, and outcomes.

Cover page of Marijuana as a 'concept' flavour for cigar products: availability and price near California schools.

Marijuana as a 'concept' flavour for cigar products: availability and price near California schools.

(2017)

To assess the retail availability of cigar products that refer to marijuana and the largest package size of cigarillos available for ≤$1.

Trained data collectors conducted marketing surveillance in a random sample of licensed tobacco retailers that sold little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) (n=530) near a statewide sample of middle and high schools (n=132) in California. Multilevel models examined the presence of marijuana co-marketing and cigarillo pack size as a function of school/neighbourhood characteristics and adjusted for store type.

Of stores that sold LCCs, approximately 62% contained at least one form of marijuana co-marketing: 53.2% sold cigar wraps marketed as blunt wraps, 27.2% sold cigarillos marketed as blunts and 26.0% sold at least one LCC with a marijuana-related 'concept' flavour. Controlling for store type, marijuana co-marketing was more prevalent in school neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of young residents (ages 5-17 years) and with lower median household income. Nearly all stores that sold LCCs (87.9%) offered the products for ≤$1. However, significantly larger packs at similarly low prices were available near schools in lower-income neighbourhoods and with a lower percentage of Hispanic students.

Understanding how the tobacco industry manipulates cigar products and marketing to capitalise on the appeal of marijuana to youth and other priority populations is important to inform regulation, particularly for flavoured tobacco products. In addition, the retail availability of five and six packs of LCCs for ≤$1 near California schools underscores policy recommendations to establish minimum prices for multipacks.