The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at UCSF provides expert treatment for all aspects of musculoskeletal injuries including inpatient and outpatient surgical care, rehabilitation, and orthotics and prosthetics. Our physicians have specific training and experience in a broad range of orthopaedic specialties such as sports medicine, trauma, joint replacement, pediatrics, oncology, spine, shoulder and elbow, foot and ankle, and hand. The Department is internationally recognized for its work in patient care, education, and research. Our basic and translational research programs focus on cartilage and disc regeneration, fracture healing, molecular and stem cell biology, bioengineering, and musculoskeletal development.
The global burden of musculoskeletal injury in low and lower-middle income countries: A systematic literature review.
BackgroundWhile the global burden of musculoskeletal injury is increasingly recognized, few epidemiologic studies have specifically recorded its incidence or prevalence, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the burden of musculoskeletal injury relative to other health conditions is critical to effective allocation of resources to mitigate the disability that results from trauma. The current study aims to systematically review the existing primary literature on the incidence and prevalence of pelvic and appendicular fractures, a major component of musculoskeletal injury, in low- and lower-middle income countries (LMICs).
MethodsThis study conforms to the systematic review and traditional meta-analysis guidelines outlined in the PRISMA-P statement. Incidence rates were calculated as the occurrence of new fracture cases per 100,000 person-years, and prevalence as total fracture cases per population sample, reported as percentages.
ResultsThe literature search yielded 3497 total citations. There were 21 full-text articles, representing 14 different countries, selected for data extraction. Included studies reported a wide range of incidence and prevalence rates, with an overall mean fracture incidence ranging from 779 (95% CI: 483.0-1188.7) to 1574 (95% CI: 1285.1-1915.1) per 100,000 person-years.
ConclusionBetter understanding the unmet burden of musculoskeletal injury in LMICs is critical to effectively allocating resources and advocating for underserved populations. To address existing gaps and heterogeneity within the literature, future research should incorporate population-based sampling with broader geographic representation in LMICs to more accurately capture the burden of disease.
Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head: associated imaging findings and predictors of clinical progression.
OBJECTIVES:To characterize the morphology and imaging findings of femoral head subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIF), and to investigate clinical outcomes in relation to imaging findings. METHODS:Fifty-one patients with hip/pelvis magnetic resonance (MR) images and typical SIF characteristics were identified and reviewed by two radiologists. Thirty-five patients had follow-up documentation allowing assessment of clinical outcome. Subgroup comparisons were performed using regression models adjusted for age and body mass index. RESULTS:SIF were frequently associated with cartilage loss (35/47, 74.5 %), effusion (33/42, 78.6 %), synovitis (29/44, 66 %), and bone marrow oedema pattern (BMEP) (average cross-sectional area 885.7 ± 730.2 mm(2)). Total hip arthroplasty (THA) was required in 16/35 patients, at an average of 6 months post-MRI. Compared to the THA cohort, the non-THA group had significantly (p < 0.05) smaller overlying cartilage defect size (10 mm vs. 29 mm), smaller band length ratio and fracture diameters, and greater incidence of parallel fracture morphology (p < 0.05). Male gender and increased age were significantly associated with progression, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS:SIF were associated with synovitis, cartilage loss, effusion, and BMEP. Male gender and increased age had a significant association with progression to THA, as did band length ratio, fracture diameter, cartilage defect size, and fracture deformity/morphology. KEY POINTS:• Femoral head subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIF) frequently require total hip arthroplasty (THA). • SIF frequently coexist with synovitis, cartilage loss, and bone marrow oedema pattern. • SIF cartilage defect size, band length ratio, and fracture diameter/morphology can predict progression risk.