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Open Access Publications from the University of California

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The World Cultures eJournal welcomes articles, data, and comparative research material dealing with any aspect of human behavior. Publication of any comparative database, regional or worldwide, will be considered. Submissions of programs and teaching materials are welcomed, as are communications on research, coding, sources, and other materials of interests to comparative researchers.

Articles

Pinpointing Sheets for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: Complete Edition

The original pinpointing sheets, 2/3rds prepared by Murdock and 1/3rd by White, are printed here in the same font as they were originally typescript, with only minor spelling corrections. Only the first 113 pinpointing sheets were published in 1988 (World Cultures 4#4).

The Role of Gender, Religion and Friendship in the Perception of the “Other”: An Investigation of Secondary Students in Australia

This paper reports some results from a large scale national study of attitudes towards Islam and Muslims amongst Australian secondary students. Wide-spread negative stereotypes and the relatively new presence of the Muslim community in Australia tend to suggest non-Muslim students may not be well informed, while the longstanding multicultural posture of educational policy suggests otherwise. Variation in response between boys and girls, religion or non-religious affiliated also revealed a high level of significance. Specifically girls and students in non-religious schools were more accepting of Muslims. It was found that having a friend who is Muslim is significantly associated with reduced prejudice towards Muslims. While non-Muslim students agree that acceptance of Muslims does not come easily in Australia, school does not emerge as a site for change. The findings show Australian students are generally ignorant about Muslims and Islam, and few believe that schools are filling the gaps in their knowledge

Cross-Cultural Comparison of Marriage Relationship between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh

Marriage is a universal social institution through which an adult male and an adult female usually involves in marriage relationship and may perpetuate it to meet their reciprocal sexual, emotional, and material needs across the marital life cycle. Relevant literatures reviewed suggested that most of the studies on marriage relationship between Muslim and Santal communities in Bangladesh were culture-specific. In order to fulfill the knowledge gap purpose of the study was to explore and compare marriage relationship, including marital bond development, sexual behavior, and role relationship between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. For this research purpose 100 couples (70 couples for the Muslim and 30 couples for the Santal) out of 380 couples were randomly selected by cluster sampling procedure from the Kalna village situated in the Tanore Upazila of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. In so doing in-depth interview method with semi-structural questionnaire: Open and close-ended questions was applied for necessary data collection. The collected data were analyzed by Independent Sample T-test to compare marriage relationship, especially marital bond development, marital sexual behavior and marital role relationship between the communities’ couples. The results of the Independent Sample t test showed that there were significant differences in age at marriage for women, sexual frequency, and role relationships among the couples selected between the communities in rural Bangladesh. This study recommends that further cross-cultural research should be done on marital power relationship and marital adjustment across the couples’ life cycle between the two ethnic communities in Bangladesh.