This study examined the microbial diversity and community assembly of oral microbiota in periodontal health and disease and after nonsurgical periodontal treatment. The V4 region of 16S rRNA gene from DNA of 238 saliva and subgingival samples of 21 healthy and 48 diseased subjects was amplified and sequenced. Among 1979 OTUs identified, 28 were overabundant in diseased plaque. Six of these taxa were also overabundant in diseased saliva. Twelve OTUs were overabundant in healthy plaque. There was a trend for disease-associated taxa to decrease and health-associated taxa to increase after treatment with notable variations among individual sites. Network analysis revealed modularity of the microbial communities and identified several health- and disease-specific modules. Ecological drift was a major factor that governed community turnovers in both plaque and saliva. Dispersal limitation and homogeneous selection affected the community assembly in plaque, with the additional contribution of homogenizing dispersal for plaque within individuals. Homogeneous selection and dispersal limitation played important roles, respectively, in healthy saliva and diseased pre-treatment saliva between individuals. Our results revealed distinctions in both taxa and assembly processes of oral microbiota between periodontal health and disease. Furthermore, the community assembly analysis has identified potentially effective approaches for managing periodontitis.