HIV infection has been associated with diastolic heart failure and atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether HIV infection is associated with differences in left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), and left atrial volume (LAV) indexed to body surface area (left ventricular mass index, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index [LVEDVI], and left atrial volume index [LAVI], respectively). Cross-sectional study of 721 men [425 HIV-infected (HIV+), 296 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) enrolled in the cardiovascular substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Participants underwent cardiac computed tomography imaging. A blinded reader measured LVM, LVEDV, and LAV. We used multivariable linear regression models to evaluate whether LVEDVI, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and LAVI differed by HIV serostatus, adjusting for demographics and cardiovascular disease risk factors. LVMI was significantly greater in HIV+ compared with HIV- men, with adjusted difference of 2.65 g/m2 (95% confidence interval 0.53-4.77, p < .001). Left ventricular end-diastolic index and LAVI did not differ significantly between the two groups. HIV-related factors (nadir CD4 count, clinical AIDS diagnosis, cumulative antiretroviral therapy use, and cumulative protease inhibitor use) were not significantly associated with LVMI, LVEDVI, or LAVI. LVM was significantly higher in HIV+ than HIV- men, which may contribute to the observed increased risk for diastolic heart failure associated with HIV infection. Although HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation, we did not find any difference in LAV by HIV serostatus.