The aim of this study is to discuss the state of the art with regard to established or promising bioelectric therapies meant to alter or control neurologic function. We present recent reports on bioelectric technologies that interface with the nervous system at three potential sites-(1) the end organ, (2) the peripheral nervous system, and (3) the central nervous system-while exploring practical and clinical considerations. A literature search was executed on PubMed, IEEE, and Web of Science databases. A review of the current literature was conducted to examine functional and histomorphological effects of neuroprosthetic interfaces with a focus on end-organ, peripheral, and central nervous system interfaces. Innovations in bioelectric technologies are providing increasing selectivity in stimulating distinct nerve fiber populations in order to activate discrete muscles. Significant advances in electrode array design focus on increasing selectivity, stability, and functionality of implantable neuroprosthetics. The application of neuroprosthetics to paretic nerves or even directly stimulating or recording from the central nervous system holds great potential in advancing the field of nerve and tissue bioelectric engineering and contributing to clinical care. Although current physiotherapeutic and surgical treatments seek to restore function, structure, or comfort, they bear significant limitations in enabling cosmetic or functional recovery. Instead, the introduction of bioelectric technology may play a role in the restoration of function in patients with neurologic deficits.