BackgroundHereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is caused by mutations in TGFβ/BMP9 pathway genes and characterized by vascular malformations (VM) including arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in lung, liver, and brain, which lead to severe complications including intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) from brain VM. The clinical heterogeneity of HHT suggests a role for genetic modifier effects. Common variants in loci that modify phenotype severity in Tgfb knockout mice were previously reported as associated with lung AVM in HHT. Common variants in candidate genes were reported as associated with sporadic brain AVM and/or ICH. We investigated whether these variants are associated with HHT organ VM or with ICH from brain VM in 752 Caucasian HHT patients enrolled by the Brian Vascular Malformation Consortium.
MethodsWe genotyped 11 candidate variants: four variants reported as associated with lung AVM in HHT (PTPN14 rs2936018, USH2A rs700024, ADAM17 rs12474540, rs10495565), and seven variants reported as associated with sporadic BAVM or ICH (APOE ε2, ANGPTL4 rs11672433, EPHB4 rs314308, IL6 rs1800795, IL1B rs1143627, ITGB8 rs10486391, TNFA rs361525). Association of genotype with any VM, lung AVM, liver VM, brain VM or brain VM ICH was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and family clustering.
ResultsNone of the 11 variants was significantly associated with any phenotype. There was a trend toward association of USH2A rs700024 with ICH (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.13-6.80, p = .026).
ConclusionWe did not replicate previously reported associations with HHT lung AVM and variants in Tgfb modifier loci. We also did not find significant associations between variants reported in sporadic brain AVM and VM or ICH in HHT.