© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Purpose: In Scandinavia, delivery of a first-born son elevates the risk of preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction of the next-born infant. External validity of these results remains unclear. We test this hypothesis for preterm delivery and growth restriction using the linked California birth cohort file. We examined the hypothesis separately by race and/or ethnicity. Methods: We retrieved data on 2,852,976 births to 1,426,488 mothers with at least two live births. Our within-mother tests applied Cox proportional hazards (preterm delivery, defined as less than 37weeks gestation) and linear regression models (birth weight for gestational age percentiles). Results: For non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indian and/or Alaska Natives, analyses indicate heightened risk of preterm delivery and growth restriction after a first-born male. The race-specific hazard ratios for preterm delivery range from 1.07 to 1.18. Regression coefficients for birth weight for gestational age percentile range from-0.73 to-1.49. The 95% confidence intervals for all these estimates do not contain the null. By contrast, we could not reject the null for non-Hispanic black mothers. Conclusions: Whereas California findings generally support those from Scandinavia, the null results among non-Hispanic black mothers suggest that we do not detect adverse outcomes after a first-born male in all racial and/or ethnic groups.