In eukaryotic organisms, stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play crucial roles in transmitting environmental signals to regulate gene expression for cellular stress adaptation. Here we report that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Spc1/Sty1 MAPK and the Atf1 transcription factor regulate the stress-induced expression of Pmp3, a ubiquitous small membrane protein implicated in the modulation of the plasma membrane potential. The pmp3 null mutant, as well as the spc1 and atf1 mutants, is hypersensitive to the cationic antibiotic hygromycin B. Transcriptional regulation of the Pmp3-like genes by the stress-activated MAPK may also be conserved in other eukaryotes, including plants. (c) 2006 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.