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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The California Digital Library supports the assembly and creative use of the world's scholarship and knowledge for the University of California libraries and the communities they serve.

In addition, the CDL provides tools that support the construction of online information services for research, teaching, and learning, including services that enable the UC libraries to effectively share their materials and provide greater access to digital content.



History: 2-month premature infant presented with rhythmic jerking of all 4 extremities at age two weeks. He had been born by Caesarian section at age 30 weeks, due to fetal bradycardia and underlying subchorionic hemorrhage. His hospital course was complicated by Group B Streptococcus pneumonia, for which he received 10 days of ampicillin and gentamicin. He also had anemia of prematurity (treated with packed red blood cells) and thrombocytopenia. Three days before the seizure, his CRP and WBC were noted to be elevated, with a marked shift to the left.

Physical exam: Afebrile, with blood pressure of 60/36, pulse of 187, and respiratory rate of 51. The patient appeared lethargic, with arms and legs were flexed. He was able to move all four extremities, jerking them in clusters of 3 to 5 jerks, every 10 to 20 seconds. Jerking was most pronounced in the upper extremities. Hypertonia was noted between episodes, especially at the right lower extremity. The anterior fontanelle was soft, and deep tendon reflexes were normal. The grasp reflex was weak and inconsistent.

Differential diagnosis: Seizures secondary to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hemorrhage, meningitis/cerebritis, mass, seizure disorder, toxic/metabolic encephalopathy, accidental trauma, non-accidental trauma.

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History: 2-month premature infant developed jerking of extremities at age two weeks.  (Section would be a bit larger to include more history in a real case submission)

Physical exam: Afebrile, (rest of vital signs).  Lethargic infant who demonstrates tonic-clonic seizures with increased tone of the extremities between jerks.  (this section would be larger in a real case submission to include a more comprehensive exam).

Differential diagnosis: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hemorrhage, meningitis/cerebritis, mass, seizure disorder, mass, toxic/metabolic encephalopathy, accidental trauma, non-accidental trauma.

Laboratory results: WBC of 17.5K and anemia. Lumbar puncture yielded bloody fluid that grew no organisms.

Imaging findings: Head ultrasound shows markedly dilated lateral, third and fourth ventricles that are filled with heterogeneous moderately echogenic material. Parenchyma is compressed. Decreased sulci due to prematurity.

Differential diagnosis based on imaging: Intraventricular hemorrhage vs pus.

Clinical course: The patient was started on phenobarbital, with resolution of tonic-clonic seizure activity. Right ventricular tap was performed to relieve intracranial pressure, with drainage of purulent material, which eventually grew Escherichia coli. The patient expired four days later.

Diagnosis:Escherichia coli meningitis

Discussion: Meningitis is a common cause of hydrocephalus and neurological problems worldwide. It usually results from seeding of the choroid plexus in the setting of sepsis. Meningeal inflammation leads to vasculitis, cortical infarcts, and diffuse cerebral edema. In infants, Group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes are responsible for most cases of meningitis and cerebritis.

If US is performed in the acute phase, it may demonstrate thick, echogenic meninges, prominent cortical vessels, and unusually wide sulci. Increased subarachnoid fluid may be seen. As the disease progresses, the ventricles fill with exudate that is less echogenic than acute hemorrhage. It evolves to appear more uniformly complex and lacy than chronic hemorrhage, allowing differentiation. Intraventricular cysts and isolated entrapped ventricles may form secondary to adhesions.

In the acute phase, ventriculitis and adhesions at the cerebral aqueduct or the fourth ventricular foramina may cause obstructive hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus may alternatively arise from extra axial impaired resorption of fluid. In the chronic phase, hydrocephalus may be either obstructive or secondary to global parenchymal loss.

Parenchymal foci of increased echogenicity represent infection, hemorrhage, or ischemia. The entire brain may appear edematous due to extensive cerebritis. Especially in the setting of Citrobacter koseri, vasculitis may lead to infarction, necrosis, liquefaction, and abscess formation. Brain abscess initially demonstrates increased echogenicity and hypervascularity, evolving to a complex mass and eventual cavitation with marginal hyperemia.

Cover page of Cobweb: Collaborative Collection Development for Web Archives

Cobweb: Collaborative Collection Development for Web Archives


A presentation to staff of the California Digital Library, providing an update on Cobweb development progress as of January, 2018.

Curation is Not a Place: Post-Custodial Stewardship for a Do-It-Yourself World


Academic libraries operate in an increasingly crowded information space shared with many new public and private actors characterized by overlapping spheres of intention, capability, and responsibility.  In the areas of digital and data curation, library-hosted repository and preservation solutions are competing against alternatives with a lower barrier to entry, better user experience, and perception of functional sufficiency.  As these are also often free, libraries face increasing difficulty in retaining, let alone increasing, service adoption by their stakeholder communities.  One possible solution is suggested by questioning the often tacit assumption regarding the centrality of custodial stewardship.  What are the consequences of shifting curatorial imperatives away from *holding* a copy of a given information object to *knowing* where all the copies are?  This talk explores ideas for a post-custodial stewardship regime under which curatorial functions are applied in situ to radically-dispersed content.  In today’s do-it-yourself information environment, content will inevitably be manifest in a wide variety of venues.  While these individually may fall well short of embodying desirable levels of reliability and persistence, harnessing enough of them together within a unified post-custodial framework can nevertheless result in desirable global outcomes.  A post-custodial pattern of stewardship embraces, rather than futilely combats, the realities of today’s information ecosystem, filled with many well-funded commodity service providers.  Post-custodial curation has the potential to turn these (probably unassailable) competitors into (possibly unwitting) collaborators, and, through an appropriate division of labor, encourages libraries to direct their finite programmatic resources towards high-impact initiatives where they can uniquely add value.

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Securing the Future of Federal Research: Mirroring as a Vital Scholarly Resource


The recent transition of US presidential administrations has raised awareness and concern regarding the continuity of access to federal research data.  These data are part of the vital public record of federally-funded research, and their continued availability is critically important to scientific integrity and advancement, governmental accountability, and informed public policy.  The portal was created in 2009 as a central repository of government research data, and currently hosts over 135,000 datasets.  This information is, according to the 2013 federal open data policy, “a valuable national resource and a strategic asset to the Federal Government, its partners, and the public.”  As such, it is imperative that these data are subject to effective long-term stewardship.  Best practice within the preservation community calls for redundancy, at both a technical and organizational level, as a primary strategy for higher preservation assurance.  Consequently, California Digital Library (CDL) and Code for Science & Society (CSS) collaborated with the development team on, a full dynamic mirror of holds descriptive metadata and links to the dataset copies of record on federal agency websites, as well as alternative links to local datamirror-managed replicas (41 TB), and soon, to other known copies that may emerge through the efforts of the national data rescue movement, in which CDL and CSS are active participants.  While instigated by recent political events, the stewardship provided by is merely an expression of prudent research data management that is clearly called for to ensure permanent access to the nation’s rich digital patrimony.

  • 1 supplemental file
Cover page of Cobweb: Collaborative Collection Development for Web Archives

Cobweb: Collaborative Collection Development for Web Archives


The massive scale of online news calls for collaborative approaches to assessing what has already been archived and asserting which un-archived sites should be preserved, considering their significance in representing a “first draft of history.” And given the fast pace at which online news content evolves, memory institutions interested in preserving this content may need to understand not just what has been archived, but also the temporal and structural conditions that were applied in its archiving. Researchers and journalists likewise have an interest in understanding what online news content is available to them, and are well-positioned to make recommendations about which content should be preserved, why, and at what pace, so that it can be made available into the future. There is therefore a potential for highly productive synergies between the news archiving community and the Cobweb initiative, which is building a collaborative collection development platform supporting the creation of comprehensive web archives by coordinating the independent activities of the web archiving community.


The demands of archiving the web in comprehensive breadth or thematic depth easily exceed the capacity of any single institution, and the same could be said of online news content. To ensure that the limited resources of a given archival program are deployed most effectively, it is important that its curators know something about the collection development priorities and holdings of other, similarly engaged institutions. Cobweb,, will meet this need by supporting three key functions of collaborative collection development of web archives: nominating, claiming, and holdings. The nomination function will let curators and stakeholders (including researchers and journalists) suggest web sites pertinent to specific thematic areas and provide seed-level descriptive metadata; the claiming function will allow archival programs to indicate an intention to capture some subset of nominated sites; and the holdings function will allow programs to document captured sites along with their collection-level description, structural and temporal scope, preservation policies, and terms of use. The aggregated  descriptions of websites archived by many distributed archival programs that will be made discoverable through Cobweb are also intended to make it easier for researchers and journalists to find versions of websites relevant to their work.


Cobweb is a collaborative project of the California Digital Library, Harvard University, and UCLA, funded by the Institute for Museum and Library Services. This presentation provides an update on recent project activities, which include finalizing data models and functional requirements, user experience/interface design, development of a prototype interface and database, and exploring interactions of the Cobweb system with other web archiving systems.