Since its founding in 1983 by California State Legislature, the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP) has supported excellent, timely, and innovative research that is attentive to the needs of California, accelerating progress towards prevention, care and treatment for HIV/AIDS. During this time over $250M has been awarded for over 2,000 research projects.
CHRP provides start-up funds for the development of cutting edge research in California, providing critical leverage to bring in federal and private dollars to the state. A 2006 survey of California investigators found that more than five dollars in federal and other grant support was generated for every dollar invested by CHRP in California-based research.
NF-kappaB serves as a cellular sensor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency and negatively regulates K-Rta by antagonizing the RBP-Jkappa coactivator.
Successful viral replication is dependent on a conducive cellular environment; thus, viruses must be sensitive to the state of their host cells. We examined the idea that an interplay between viral and cellular regulatory factors determines the switch from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency to lytic replication. The immediate-early gene product K-Rta is the first viral protein expressed and an essential factor in reactivation; accordingly, this viral protein is in a key position to serve as a viral sensor of cellular physiology. Our approach aimed to define a host transcription factor, i.e., host sensor, which modulates K-Rta activity on viral promoters. To this end, we developed a panel of reporter plasmids containing all 83 putative viral promoters for a comprehensive survey of the response to both K-Rta and cellular transcription factors. Interestingly, members of the NF-kappaB family were shown to be strong negative regulators of K-Rta transactivation for all but two viral promoters (Ori-RNA and K12). Recruitment of K-Rta to the ORF57 and K-bZIP promoters, but not the K12 promoter, was significantly impaired when NF-kappaB expression was induced. Many K-Rta-responsive promoters modulated by NF-kappaB contain the sequence of the RBP-Jkappa binding site, a major coactivator which anchors K-Rta to target promoters via consensus motifs which overlap with that of NF-kappaB. Gel shift assays demonstrated that NF-kappaB inhibits the binding of RBP-Jkappa and forms a complex with RBP-Jkappa. Our results support a model in which a balance between K-Rta/RBP-Jkappa and NF-kappaB activities determines KSHV reactivation. An important feature of this model is that the interplay between RBP-Jkappa and NF-kappaB on viral promoters controls viral gene expression mediated by K-Rta.
Collinearity of protease mutations in HIV-1 samples with high-level protease inhibitor class resistance.
To determine whether pan-protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant virus populations are composed predominantly of viruses with resistance to all PIs or of diverse virus populations with resistance to different subsets of PIs.
We performed deep sequencing of plasma virus samples from nine patients with high-level genotypic and/or phenotypic resistance to all licensed PIs. The nine virus samples had a median of 12 PI resistance mutations by direct PCR Sanger sequencing.
For each of the nine virus samples, deep sequencing showed that each of the individual viruses within a sample contained nearly all of the mutations detected by Sanger sequencing. Indeed, a median of 94.9% of deep sequence reads had each of the PI resistance mutations present as a single chromatographic peak in the Sanger sequence. A median of 5.0% of reads had all but one of the Sanger mutations that were not part of an electrophoretic mixture.
The collinearity of PI resistance mutations in the nine virus samples demonstrated that pan-PI-resistant viruses are able to replicate in vivo despite their highly mutated protease enzymes. We hypothesize that the marked collinearity of PI resistance mutations in pan-PI-resistant virus populations results from the unique requirements for multi-PI resistance and the extensive cross-resistance conferred by many of the accessory PI resistance mutations.