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Open Access Publications from the University of California

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UC Research Initiatives supports multicampus research teams, partners UC and national laboratory scientists, and advances innovations that benefit California.

University of California Research Initiatives (UCRI)

There are 381 publications in this collection, published between 2011 and 2020.
Recent Work (56)

Particle- γ coincidence spectroscopy of the N = 90 nucleus 154Gd by (p, tγ)

© 2017, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. A segmented Si-telescope and HPGe array, STARS-LIBERACE, was used to study the 156Gd(p, tγ)154Gd direct reaction by particle- γ coincidence spectroscopy. New cross sections with a 25MeV proton beam are reported and compared to previous (p,t) and (t,p) studies. Furthermore, additional evidence for coexisting Kπ=01+,21+ and 02+, 22+ configurations at N = 90 is presented. Direct and indirect population patterns of the low-lying states are also explored. Review of the new and existing evidence favors an interpretation based on a configuration-dependent pairing interaction. The weakening of monopole pairing strength and an increase in quadrupole pairing strength could bring 2p-2h 0 + states below 2 Δ. This may account for a large number of the low-lying 0 + states observed in two-nucleon transfer reactions. A hypothesis for the origin of the 02+ and 03+ states is provided.

The Importance of Institutional Design for Distributed Local-level Governance of Groundwater: The Case of California's Sustainable Groundwater Management Act

In many areas of the world, groundwater resources are increasingly stressed, and unsustainable use has become common. Where existing mechanisms for governing groundwater are ineffective or nonexistent, new ones need to be developed. Local level groundwater governance provides an intriguing alternative to top-down models, with the promise of enabling management to better match the diversity of physical and social conditions in groundwater basins. One such example is emerging in California, USA, where new state law requires new local agencies to self-organize and act to achieve sustainable groundwater management. In this article, we draw on insights from research on common pool resource management and natural resources governance to develop guidelines for institutional design for local groundwater governance, grounded in California’s developing experience. We offer nine criteria that can be used as principles or standards in the evaluation of institutional design for local level groundwater governance: scale, human capacity, funding, authority, independence, representation, participation, accountability, and transparency. We assert that local governance holds promise as an alternative to centralized governance in some settings but that its success will depend heavily on the details of its implementation. Further, for local implementation to achieve its promise, there remain important complementary roles for centralized governance. California’s developing experience with local level groundwater management in dozens of basins across the state provides a unique opportunity to test and assess the importance and influence of these criteria.

Manganese-Driven Carbon Oxidation at Oxic-Anoxic Interfaces

Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society. The formation of reactive manganese (Mn) species is emerging as a key regulator of carbon oxidation rates, and thus CO2 emissions, in soils and sediments. Many subsurface environments are characterized by steep oxygen gradients, forming oxic-anoxic interfaces that enable rapid redox cycling of Mn. Here, we examined the impact of Mn(II)aq oxidation along oxic-anoxic interfaces on carbon oxidation in soils using laboratory-based diffusion reactors. A combination of cyclic voltammetry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray microprobe imaging revealed a tight coupling between Mn(II)aq oxidation and carbon oxidation at the oxic-anoxic interface. Specifically, zones of Mn(II)aq oxidation across the oxic-anoxic transition also exhibited the greatest lignin oxidation potential, carbon solubilization, and oxidation. Microprobe imaging further revealed that the generation of Mn(III)-dominated precipitates coincided with carbon oxidation. Combined, our findings demonstrate that biotic Mn(II)aq oxidation, specifically the formation of Mn(III) species, contributes to carbon oxidation along oxic-anoxic interfaces in soils and sediments. Our results suggest that we should regard carbon oxidation not merely as a function of molecular composition, which insufficiently predicts rates, but in relation to microenvironments favoring the formation of critically important oxidants such as Mn(III).

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