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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The Institute of European Studies (IES) is home to the leading concentration of researchers and teachers on Europe in the Western United States. It is among the top three such organizations in the entire country, along with Harvard and Columbia. While IES was only recently created in the latter part of the 1999 academic year, it has had strong institutional roots: the Institute represents the unification of staff, resources, and programs of UC Berkeley's Center for German and European Studies (CGES) which serves all nine UC campuses, and UC Berkeley's Center for Western European Studies (CWES) which housed the French, Finnish, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish Studies Programs.

Institute of European Studies
207 Moses Hall #2316
Berkeley, CA 94720
(510) 642-5157

Cover page of The Doors That April Opened

The Doors That April Opened


An outgrowth of a library exhibition in UC Berkeley’s Doe Library, this book commemorates the 40th anniversary of Portugal’s Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos) which took place on April 25, 1974. The poem “As portas que Abril abriu” first published in 1975 by the fabled poet of the revolution José Carlos Ary dos Santos and graphically reinforced by António Pimentel’s illustrations provided a fitting and powerful structure for the installation. Because a translation was not available, the curators provided one there and now documented in this book the first-ever parallel English translation of the text.

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Cover page of The Portuguese Republic at One Hundred

The Portuguese Republic at One Hundred


In October 1910 a revolution drove out the king of Portugal and established the Portuguese Republic. In 1926 a military coup overthrew the parliamentary system and led to the authoritarian regime of Salazar, but in April 1974 a revolution led by the military restored the parliamentary republic. In this book edited by Richard Herr (Berkeley) and António Costa Pinto (Lisbon), eighteen Portuguese and American authors present essays in celebration of the centennial of the Portuguese Republic. With a review of its course and needs for the future, they offer an assessment of accomplishments of the two periods of the republic, the nature of republican institutions, the role of women in politics and letters, and the republic’s social, economic, religious, and environmental policies. Much thought has gone into analyzing the two revolutions, the challenge of an authoritarian tradition, and the difficulties posed for establishing a workable parliamentary government with a democratic suffrage.