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Open Access Publications from the University of California

As a US Department of Education, Title VI National Resource Center, The Center for European and Eurasian Studies (CEES) provides a pan-European perspective for scholars and students from a wide range of disciplines. Originally established in 1957 as a center for Russian and East European Studies, it reorganized in 1993 to reflect the shift in teaching and research toward an expanding and increasingly integrated European community. CEES promotes teaching and research by internationally acclaimed specialists of Western, Central and Eastern Europe, including Russia, and fosters cross-country and cross-disciplinary collaboration among the social sciences, humanities, professional schools, and libraries.

Cover page of Fascists



A review of Michael Mann's, UCLA, Sociology, newly published book on FASCISM, see also Michael Mann's report.

Cover page of The Rise and Fall of Fascism

The Rise and Fall of Fascism


Fascism was probably the most important political ideology created during the 20th century. In the inter-war period it dominated half of Europe and threatened to overwhelm the other half. It also influenced many countries across the Middle East, Asia, Latin America and South Africa. In Asia, for example, its influence was probably strongest on the Chinese Kuomintang, Japanese militarists and Hindu nationalists. My book Fascists (Cambridge University Press, 2004) is based on research on fascists where they were strongest, in six European countries -- Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Spain. In the book I ask the question, why did fascism rise to such prominence? And I answer it looking at the men and women who became fascists: who were they, what did they believe in, and how did they act?

Cover page of Michael Bazyler's Holocaust Justice

Michael Bazyler's Holocaust Justice


Regula Ludi examines whether the successful resolution of Holocaust restitution claims is a landmark in establishing accountability for past wrongdoing and extending universal jurisdiction to the corporate realm. Focusing on the unique historical circumstances surrounding the successful legal battles, she asks how they affected our understanding of moral and political obligations associated with the Nazi past, and what implications their successful resolution has for future human rights campaigns