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In vitro reconstitution of calcium-dependent recruitment of the human ESCRT machinery in lysosomal membrane repair


The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is centrally involved in the repair of damage to both the plasma and lysosome membranes. ESCRT recruitment to sites of damage occurs on a fast time scale, and Ca2+ has been proposed to play a key signaling role in the process. Here, we show that the Ca2+-binding regulatory protein ALG-2 binds directly to negatively charged membranes in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Next, by monitoring the colocalization of ALIX with ALG-2 on negatively charged membranes, we show that ALG-2 recruits ALIX to the membrane. Furthermore, we show that ALIX recruitment to the membrane orchestrates the downstream assembly of late-acting CHMP4B, CHMP3, and CHMP2A subunits along with the AAA+ ATPase VPS4B. Finally, we show that ALG-2 can also recruit the ESCRT-III machinery to the membrane via the canonical ESCRT-I/II pathway. Our reconstitution experiments delineate the minimal sets of components needed to assemble the entire membrane repair machinery and open an avenue for the mechanistic understanding of endolysosomal membrane repair.

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