Parallel De Bruijn Graph Construction and Traversal for De Novo Genome Assembly
Published Web Locationhttps://crd.lbl.gov/assets/pubs_presos/sc14genome.pdf
De novo whole genome assembly reconstructs genomic sequence from short, overlapping, and potentially erroneous fragments called reads. We study optimized parallelization of the most time-consuming phases of Meraculous, a state of-the-art production assembler. First, we present a new parallel algorithm for k-mer analysis, characterized by intensive communication and I/O requirements, and reduce the memory requirements by 6.93×. Second, we efficiently parallelize de Bruijn graph construction and traversal, which necessitates a distributed hash table and is a key component of most de novo assemblers. We provide a novel algorithm that leverages one-sided communication capabilities of the Unified Parallel C (UPC) to facilitate the requisite fine-grained parallelism and avoidance of data hazards, while analytically proving its scalability properties. Overall results show unprecedented performance and efficient scaling on up to 15,360 cores of a Cray XC30, on human genome as well as the challenging wheat genome, with performance improvement from days to seconds.