Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Irvine

UC Irvine Previously Published Works bannerUC Irvine

Enhanced Transepithelial Riboflavin Delivery Using Femtosecond Laser-Machined Epithelial Microchannels.



This study describes a femtosecond laser (FS) approach to machine corneal epithelial microchannels for enhancing riboflavin (Rf) penetration into the cornea prior to corneal crosslinking (CXL).


Using a 1030-nm FS laser with 5- to 10-µJ pulse energy, the corneal epithelium of slaughterhouse rabbit eyes was machined to create 2-µm-diameter by 25-µm-long microchannels at a density of 100 or 400 channels/mm2. Rf penetration through the microchannels was then determined by applying 1% Rf in phosphate-buffered saline for 30 minutes followed by removal of the cornea and extraction from the central stromal button. Stromal Rf concentrations were then compared to those obtained using standard epithelial debridement or 0.01% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to disrupt the epithelial barrier.


Microchannels formed using a 5-µJ/pulse at a density of 400 channels/mm2 achieved a stromal Rf concentration that was 50% of that achieved by removal of the corneal epithelium and imbibing with 1% Rf. Stromal Rf levels were also equal to that of debrided corneas soaked with 0.5% Rf, threefold higher than those soaked with 0.1% Rf, and twofold higher than corneas soaked in BAK without epithelial debridement. Organ culture of treated corneas showed a normal corneal epithelium following FS machining while BAK-treated corneas showed extensive epithelial and stromal damage at 24 hours posttreatment.


FS corneal epithelial machining can be used to enhance penetration of Rf into the stroma for corneal CXL.

Translational relevance

The creation of epithelial microchannels allows for stromal Rf concentrations high enough to perform true transepithelial crosslinking.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View