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A Light Emitting Diode (LED) Based Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging System for Optimization of Photodynamic Therapy of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: Quantitative Reflectance Imaging

Published Web Location Commons 'BY' version 4.0 license


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers the potential for enhanced treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) with minimal scarring. Yet, PDT has not achieved consistent long term effectiveness to gain widespread clinical acceptance for treatment of skin cancer. Therapeutic response varies between practitioners, patients and lesions. One important contributing factor is the absence of quantitative tools to perform in vivo dosimetry. To this end, we have developed a new quantitative imaging device that can be used to investigate parameters related to optimizing dosimetry.


We present a spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) based device designed to: (1) determine the optical properties at the therapeutic wavelength, which can inform variations in light penetration depth and (2) measure the spatially resolved oxygen saturation of the skin cancer lesions and surrounding tissue. We have applied this system to a preliminary clinical study of nine skin cancer lesions.


Optical properties vary greatly both spatially [101%, 48% for absorption and reduced scattering, respectively] and across patients [102%, 57%]. Blood volume maps determined using visible wavelengths (460, 525, and 630 nm) represent tissue volumes within ∼1 mm in tissue (1.17 ± 0.3 mm). Here the average total hemoglobin concentration is approximately three times greater in the lesion than that detected in normal tissue, reflecting increased vasculature typically associated with tumors. Data acquired at near infrared wavelengths (730 and 850 nm) reports tissue blood concentrations and oxygenations from the underlying dermal microvasculature (volumes reaching 4.36 ± 1.32 mm into tissue).


SFDI can be used to quantitatively characterize in vivo tissue optical properties that could be useful for better informing PDT treatment parameters. Specifically, this information provides spatially resolved insight into light delivery into tissue and local tissue oxygenation, thereby providing more quantitative and controlled dosimetry specific to the lesion. Ultimately, by optimizing the execution of PDT, this instrument has the potential to positively improve treatment outcomes.

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