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0.77-V drive voltage electro-optic modulator with bandwidth exceeding 67 GHz.


A 0.77-V drive voltage (V(π)) electro-optic modulator with bandwidth exceeding 67 GHz is described. Modulator is a compound semiconductor device fabricated using substrate removal technology. This allows placement of metal electrodes on both sides of an optical waveguide containing a p-i-n diode. Hence ohmic losses are reduced significantly. Electrode gap is essentially the same as i layer thickness, which can be kept very uniform and small. Waveguide core also contains a MQW, which improves electro-optic efficiency. Lack of p doping in the waveguide and large detuning between MQW absorption peak and operating wavelength keep the propagation loss low. Large size of the waveguide also helps to keep coupling loss low. Modulator is designed as a traveling wave device using the loaded line approach, which is used for velocity matching. Combination of these approaches yields a device with the lowest V(π) and widest bandwidth.

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