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The Bright Side and Dark Side of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Perovskites


The previously developed bistable amphoteric native defect (BAND) model is used for a comprehensive explanation of the unique photophysical properties and for understanding the remarkable performance of perovskites as photovoltaic materials. It is shown that the amphoteric defects in the donor (acceptor) configuration capture a fraction of photoexcited electrons (holes) dividing them into two groups: higher-energy bright and lower-energy dark electrons (holes). The spatial separation of the dark electrons and dark holes and the k-space separation of the bright and dark charge carriers reduce electron-hole recombination rates, emulating the properties of an ideal photovoltaic material with a balanced, spatially separated transport of electrons and holes. The BAND model also offers a straightforward explanation for the exceptional insensitivity of the photovoltaic performance of polycrystalline perovskite films to structural and optical inhomogeneities. The blue-shifted radiative recombination of bright electrons and holes results in a large anti-Stokes effect that provides a quantitative explanation for the spectral dependence of the laser cooling effect measured in perovskite platelets.

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