Skin model surface temperatures during single and multiple cryogen spurts used in laser dermatologic surgery.
- Author(s): Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C
- Aguilar, Guillermo
- Tuqan, Alia T
- Kelly, Kristen M
- Nelson, J Stuart
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20124
BACKGROUND: Although cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to minimize the risk of epidermal damage during laser dermatologic surgery, concern has been expressed that CSC may induce cryo-injury. In order to address this concern, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of prolonged exposure of human skin phantoms (HSP) to CSC. OBJECTIVE: To measure the minimum surface temperature (T(min)) and the time at which it occurs (t(Tmin)) as well as determine the time the sprayed HSP surface remains below 0 degrees C (sub-zero time, Deltat(s)) and -26 degrees C (residence time, Deltat(r)) during the application of single (SCS) and multiple (MCS) cryogen spurts. Two initial HSP substrate temperatures were studied, T(i): 23 and 70 degrees C. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: An epoxy-based HSP was constructed to measure T(min), t(Tmin), Deltat(s), and Deltat(r), for 17 spray patterns: 1 SCS with a total cryo-delivery time (Deltat(c)) of 40 milliseconds; 8 MCS patterns with identical Deltat(c), but with a total cooling time (Deltat(total)) varying from 50 to 280 milliseconds; and 8 SCS patterns that matched the Deltat(total) of the MCS patterns. RESULTS: For both T(i), our results show that it is possible to distinguish between two different cooling regimes. For Deltat(total)