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Skin model surface temperatures during single and multiple cryogen spurts used in laser dermatologic surgery.

  • Author(s): Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C;
  • Aguilar, Guillermo;
  • Tuqan, Alia T;
  • Kelly, Kristen M;
  • Nelson, J Stuart
  • et al.

Published Web Location Commons 'BY' version 4.0 license


Although cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to minimize the risk of epidermal damage during laser dermatologic surgery, concern has been expressed that CSC may induce cryo-injury. In order to address this concern, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of prolonged exposure of human skin phantoms (HSP) to CSC.


To measure the minimum surface temperature (T(min)) and the time at which it occurs (t(Tmin)) as well as determine the time the sprayed HSP surface remains below 0 degrees C (sub-zero time, Deltat(s)) and -26 degrees C (residence time, Deltat(r)) during the application of single (SCS) and multiple (MCS) cryogen spurts. Two initial HSP substrate temperatures were studied, T(i): 23 and 70 degrees C.

Study design/materials and methods

An epoxy-based HSP was constructed to measure T(min), t(Tmin), Deltat(s), and Deltat(r), for 17 spray patterns: 1 SCS with a total cryo-delivery time (Deltat(c)) of 40 milliseconds; 8 MCS patterns with identical Deltat(c), but with a total cooling time (Deltat(total)) varying from 50 to 280 milliseconds; and 8 SCS patterns that matched the Deltat(total) of the MCS patterns.


For both T(i), our results show that it is possible to distinguish between two different cooling regimes. For Deltat(total) ConclusionsThese results suggest that: (1) similar epidermal protection may be attained with SCS and MCS for Deltat(total)

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