Safety Issues in Iron Treatment in CKD.
- Author(s): Vaziri, Nosratola D
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2016.02.005
Intravenous iron products are essential for the treatment of anemia in end-stage renal disease patients maintained on hemodialysis. Although proper use of these compounds is necessary for the prevention of iron deficiency, their indiscriminate use could potentially cause insidious adverse consequences. Iron overload can intensify the chronic kidney disease-associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease; increase the risk of infections; worsen the severity of type 2 diabetes; and exacerbate neurologic and cognitive dysfunction. These and other adverse effects largely are mediated by iron-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species. Unlike conventional oral iron products, the newly released iron-containing phosphate binder ferric citrate has been shown to increase iron stores in end-stage renal disease patients. Therefore, iron indices should be monitored in patients receiving this product. Two published studies have shown a high prevalence of hepatic iron loading among hemodialysis patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron compounds. Given the potential risks related to iron treatment in this vulnerable population, studies to better understand safety are needed.