Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Davis

UC Davis Previously Published Works bannerUC Davis

FLIm and Raman Spectroscopy for Investigating Biochemical Changes of Bovine Pericardium upon Genipin Cross-Linking.


Biomaterials used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications benefit from longitudinal monitoring in a non-destructive manner. Label-free imaging based on fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor the degree of genipin (GE) cross-linking of antigen-removed bovine pericardium (ARBP) at three incubation time points (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 h). Fluorescence lifetime decreased and the emission spectrum redshifted compared to that of uncross-linked ARBP. The Raman signature of GE-ARBP was resonance-enhanced due to the GE cross-linker that generated new Raman bands at 1165, 1326, 1350, 1380, 1402, 1470, 1506, 1535, 1574, 1630, 1728, and 1741 cm-1. These were validated through density functional theory calculations as cross-linker-specific bands. A multivariate multiple regression model was developed to enhance the biochemical specificity of FLIm parameters fluorescence intensity ratio (R2 = 0.92) and lifetime (R2 = 0.94)) with Raman spectral results. FLIm and Raman spectroscopy detected biochemical changes occurring in the collagenous tissue during the cross-linking process that were characterized by the formation of a blue pigment which affected the tissue fluorescence and scattering properties. In conclusion, FLIm parameters and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor the degree of cross-linking non-destructively.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View