FLIm and Raman Spectroscopy for Investigating Biochemical Changes of Bovine Pericardium upon Genipin Cross-Linking.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173857
Biomaterials used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications benefit from longitudinal monitoring in a non-destructive manner. Label-free imaging based on fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor the degree of genipin (GE) cross-linking of antigen-removed bovine pericardium (ARBP) at three incubation time points (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 h). Fluorescence lifetime decreased and the emission spectrum redshifted compared to that of uncross-linked ARBP. The Raman signature of GE-ARBP was resonance-enhanced due to the GE cross-linker that generated new Raman bands at 1165, 1326, 1350, 1380, 1402, 1470, 1506, 1535, 1574, 1630, 1728, and 1741 cm-1. These were validated through density functional theory calculations as cross-linker-specific bands. A multivariate multiple regression model was developed to enhance the biochemical specificity of FLIm parameters fluorescence intensity ratio (R2 = 0.92) and lifetime (R2 = 0.94)) with Raman spectral results. FLIm and Raman spectroscopy detected biochemical changes occurring in the collagenous tissue during the cross-linking process that were characterized by the formation of a blue pigment which affected the tissue fluorescence and scattering properties. In conclusion, FLIm parameters and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor the degree of cross-linking non-destructively.