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Bromine oxide—ozone interaction over the Dead Sea


Atmospheric measurements were performed during a 1 month period in early summer of 1997 at the Dead Sea in Israel in an attempt to identify bromine monoxide BrO, and evaluate its effect on ozone chemistry. The differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique was utilized to identify and measure BrO present in the air masses. Concurrent to the DOAS measurements, continuous monitoring of SO2, NO/NOx,O3, and CO was performed. Filter samples for aerosol analysis and whole air canister samples for bromocarbon analysis were also collected. The present paper reports the complete comprehensive data set of the measurements at the Dead Sea site and is a continuation to our preliminary communication [Heberstreit et al., 1999]. The more complete data now available enable a more detailed examination of the sources and mechanisms of the reactive halogen species and the presentation of new conclusions. The results showed a diurnal repeating cycle of O3 and BrO variations, correlated with solar radiation and wind direction. During the elevated BrO events, where bromine oxide rose to daily maximum values often exceeding 100 ppt, a clear negative correlation with O3 was observed. During these episodes, the O3 regularly decreased from noontime levels of 50-80 ppb or higher down to 10-30 ppb and occasionally to levels below the detection limit of 2 ppb. The enhanced BrO levels were associated with southerly winds that are typical for the location during midday hours. This suggests that a possible source for the reactive bromine species is the interaction of atmospheric oxidants with bromide at the surface of the large salt pans located at the southern end of the Dead Sea. Research flights flown over the area showed that ozone destruction to levels well below the background values were observed over large areas of the Dead Sea Valley. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

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