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Open Access Publications from the University of California

An evaluation of modified 4-aminopyridine baits for protecting sunflower from blackbird damage

  • Author(s): Knittle, C. Edward
  • Cummings, John L.
  • Linz, George M.
  • Besser, Jerome F.
  • et al.

Bait preference studies with red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) in North Dakota sunflower fields indicated that sunflower seeds and a combination of sunflower seeds and chopped corn (MIX) were more successful in producing affected blackbirds, primarily red-winged blackbirds, than pearl barley or chopped corn used separately. A subsequent study compared the effectiveness of commercial Avitrol FC corn Chops-99S to 4-aminopyridine-trealed MIX-99S baits for reducing blackbird damage to ripening sunflower. Both baits significantly reduced damage in fields nearest a blackbird roost (within two miles), but were largely ineffective in fields farther than two miles from a roost. The ramifications of these results are discussed.

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