An Extended Structure-Activity Relationship of Nondioxin-Like PCBs Evaluates and Supports Modeling Predictions and Identifies Picomolar Potency of PCB 202 Towards Ryanodine Receptors.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfw189
Nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL PCBs) activate ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels (RyRs) and this activation has been associated with neurotoxicity in exposed animals. RyR-active congeners follow a distinct structure-activity relationship and a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) predicts that a large number of PCBs likely activate the receptor, which requires validation. Additionally, previous structural based conclusions have been established using receptor ligand binding assays but the impact of varying PCB structures on ion channel gating behavior is not understood. We used [3H]Ryanodine ([3H]Ry) binding to assess the RyR-activity of 14 previously untested PCB congeners evaluating the predictability of the QSAR. Congeners determined to display widely varying potency were then assayed with single channel voltage clamp analysis to assess direct influences on channel gating kinetics. The RyR-activity of individual PCBs assessed in in vitro assays followed the general pattern predicted by the QSAR but binding and lipid bilayer experiments demonstrated higher potency than predicted. Of the 49 congeners tested to date, tetra-ortho PCB 202 was found to be the most potent RyR-active congener increasing channel open probability at 200 pM. Shifting meta-substitutions to the para-position resulted in a > 100-fold reduction in potency as seen with PCB 197. Non-ortho PCB 11 was found to lack activity at the receptor supporting a minimum mono-ortho substitution for PCB RyR activity. These findings expand and support previous SAR assessments; where out of the 49 congeners tested to date 42 activate the receptor demonstrating that the RyR is a sensitive and common target of PCBs.