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Temperature-dependent hydrogen deuterium exchange shows impact of analog binding on adenosine deaminase flexibility but not embedded thermal networks


The analysis of hydrogen deuterium exchange by mass spectrometry as a function of temperature and mutation has emerged as a generic and efficient tool for the spatial resolution of protein networks that are proposed to function in the thermal activation of catalysis. In this work, we extend temperature-dependent hydrogen deuterium exchange from apo-enzyme structures to protein-ligand complexes. Using adenosine deaminase as a prototype, we compared the impacts of a substrate analog (1-deaza-adenosine) and a very tight-binding inhibitor/transition state analog (pentostatin) at single and multiple temperatures. At a single temperature, we observed different hydrogen deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry properties for the two ligands, as expected from their 106-fold differences in strength of binding. By contrast, analogous patterns for temperature-dependent hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry emerge in the presence of both 1-deaza-adenosine and pentostatin, indicating similar impacts of either ligand on the enthalpic barriers for local protein unfolding. We extended temperature-dependent hydrogen deuterium exchange to a function-altering mutant of adenosine deaminase in the presence of pentostatin and revealed a protein thermal network that is highly similar to that previously reported for the apo-enzyme (Gao et al., 2020, JACS 142, 19936-19949). Finally, we discuss the differential impacts of pentostatin binding on overall protein flexibility versus site-specific thermal transfer pathways in the context of models for substrate-induced changes to a distributed protein conformational landscape that act in synergy with embedded protein thermal networks to achieve efficient catalysis.

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