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TLR-4 mediated group IVA phospholipase A(2) activation is phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 1 and protein kinase C dependent.

  • Author(s): Grkovich, Andrej
  • Armando, Aaron
  • Quehenberger, Oswald
  • Dennis, Edward A
  • et al.

Group IVA phospholipase A(2) (GIVA PLA(2)) catalyzes the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids. AA is then further metabolized into terminal signaling molecules including numerous prostaglandins. We have now demonstrated the involvement of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1) and protein kinase C (PKC) in the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) activation of GIVA PLA(2). We also studied the effect of PAP-1 and PKC on Ca+2 induced and synergy enhanced GIVA PLA(2) activation. We observed that the AA release induced by exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to the TLR-4 specific agonist Kdo(2)-Lipid A is blocked by the PAP-1 inhibitors bromoenol lactone (BEL) and propranolol as well as the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220; however these inhibitors did not reduce AA release stimulated by Ca+2 influx induced by the P2X7 purinergic receptor agonist ATP. Additionally, stimulation of cells with diacylglycerol (DAG), the product of PAP-1 mediated hydrolysis, initiated AA release from unstimulated cells as well as restored normal AA release from cells treated with PAP-1 inhibitors. Finally, neither PAP-1 nor PKC inhibition reduced GIVA PLA(2) synergistic activation by stimulation with Kdo(2)-Lipid A and ATP.

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