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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Syrbactin Structural Analog TIR-199 Blocks Proteasome Activity And Induces Tumor Cell Death.

  • Author(s): Bachmann, André S
  • Opoku-Ansah, John
  • Ibarra-Rivera, Tannya R
  • Yco, Lisette P
  • Ambadi, Sudhakar
  • Roberts, Christopher C
  • Chang, Chia-En A
  • Pirrung, Michael C
  • et al.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an aggressive hematopoietic cancer of plasma cells. The recent emergence of three effective FDA-approved proteasome-inhibiting drugs, bortezomib (Velcade), carfilzomib (Kyprolis), and ixazomib (Ninlaro) confirms that proteasome inhibitors are therapeutically useful against neoplastic disease, in particular refractory MM and mantle cell lymphoma. This study describes the synthesis, computational affinity assessment, and preclinical evaluation of TIR-199, a natural product-derived syrbactin structural analog. Molecular modeling and simulation suggested TIR-199 covalently binds each of the three catalytic subunits (β1, β2 and β5) and revealed key interaction sites. In vitro and cell culture-based proteasome activity measurements confirmed that TIR-199 inhibits the proteasome in a dose-dependent manner and induces tumor cell death in multiple myeloma and neuroblastoma cells as well as other cancer types in the NCI-60 cell panel. It is particularly effective against kidney cancer cell lines, with more than 250-fold higher anti-tumor activities than observed with the natural product syringolin A (SylA). In vivo studies in mice revealed a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of TIR-199 at 25 mg/kg. The anti-tumor activity of TIR-199 was confirmed in hollow fiber assays in mice. Adverse drug reaction screens in a kidney panel revealed no off-targets of concern. This is the first study to examine the efficacy of a syrbactin in animals. Taken together, the results suggest that TIR-199 is a potent new proteasome inhibitor with promise for further development into a clinical drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma and other forms of cancer.

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