Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Berkeley

UC Berkeley Previously Published Works bannerUC Berkeley

Indigo: A Domain-Specific Language for Fast, Portable Image Reconstruction


Linear operators used in iterative methods like conjugate gradient have typically been implemented either as ''matrix-driven'' subroutines backed by explicit sparse or dense matrices, or as ''matrix-free'' subroutines that implement specific linear operations directly (e.g. FFTs). The matrix-driven approach is generally more portable because it can target widely-Available BLAS libraries, but it can be inefficient in terms of time and space complexity. In contrast, the matrix-free approach is more performant because it leverages structure in operations, but it requires each operator be re-implemented on each new platform. To increase performance and portability, we propose a hybrid approach that represents linear operators as expression trees. Leaf nodes in the tree are either matrix-free or matrix-driven operators, and interior nodes represent mathematical compositions (sums, products, transposes) or structural compositions (stacks, block diagonals, etc.) of the leaf operators. This representation enables expert-guided reordering and fusion transformations that can improve performance or reduce memory pressure. We implement our approach in a domain-specific language called Indigo. We assess Indigo on image reconstruction problems arising in four application areas: magnetic resonance imaging, ptychography, magnetic particle imaging, and fluorescent microscopy. We give performance results from vendor BLAS libraries, and we introduce specializations to Sparse BLAS routines that achieve near-Roofline performance on multi-core, many-core, and GPU systems.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View