Biomarkers and Local Responses to Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
- Author(s): Barkhordarian, Andreh
- Advisor(s): Chiappelli, Francesco
- et al.
This study is integrating translational research and translational effectiveness, the two fundamental components of translational science. It focuses to identify a new panel of biological markers for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD) by characterizing certain TMJD associated inflammatory, neuroendcrine and tissue destruction biomarkers. In parallel, an evidence-based research synthesis protocol is performed to uncover and evaluate the best available recommendations for treatment interventions associated with the identified TMJD biomarkers. This study is unconventional because the identified biomarkers have never been studied in the same context and combination in TMJD and associated neurological pathologies. This study is positioned at the cutting edge domain of bio-clinical research, and its focus and intent is patient-centered translational research and effectiveness where the patient's health and well being is at the center of importance. Literature study and clinical studies have shown that subconscious stress related behaviors such as Bruxism (clenching and grinding) as well as jaw related trauma could change the jaw bite and decrease its vertical dimension. This will result in bone loss and subsequent irritation and compression of the trigeminal nerve (jaw nerve) leading to local and systemic inflammation and numerous symptoms and pathologies through the central nervous system (CNS), which could be detected by elevation of certain immune, pain and tissue destruction biomarkers in synovial fluid and saliva. The resulting inflammatory response is controlled in part by a bidirectional communication between the brain and the immune systems. It involves hormonal and neuronal mechanisms by which the brain regulates the function of the immune system. Cytokines on the other hand, allow the immune system to regulate the brain. The results of this study demonstrate that TMJD provides a satisfactory model to characterize proteomic biomarker signatures and that it can perhaps be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection, prevention and treatment of TMJD and certain associated neurological pathologies. The results of the research synthesis protocol obtained the best available recommendations for treatment interventions associated with the identified TMJD biomarkers that can be used in the future to conduct a clinical trial.