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What's New in Traumatic Brain Injury: Update on Tracking, Monitoring and Treatment.

  • Author(s): Reis, Cesar
  • Wang, Yuechun
  • Akyol, Onat
  • Ho, Wing Mann
  • Ii, Richard Applegate
  • Stier, Gary
  • Martin, Robert
  • Zhang, John H
  • et al.
Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), defined as an alteration in brain functions caused by an external force, is responsible for high morbidity and mortality around the world. It is important to identify and treat TBI victims as early as possible. Tracking and monitoring TBI with neuroimaging technologies, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), positron emission tomography (PET), and high definition fiber tracking (HDFT) show increasing sensitivity and specificity. Classical electrophysiological monitoring, together with newly established brain-on-chip, cerebral microdialysis techniques, both benefit TBI. First generation molecular biomarkers, based on genomic and proteomic changes following TBI, have proven effective and economical. It is conceivable that TBI-specific biomarkers will be developed with the combination of systems biology and bioinformation strategies. Advances in treatment of TBI include stem cell-based and nanotechnology-based therapy, physical and pharmaceutical interventions and also new use in TBI for approved drugs which all present favorable promise in preventing and reversing TBI.

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