ARE Update Volume 19, Number 4
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Open Access Publications from the University of California

ARE Update Volume 19, Number 4


1. Vinum Verum Viribus? Systematic Errors in Wine Alcohol Labels

Using international data for 18 vintages, we find systematic differences between the actual and stated alcohol content of wine. Our results suggest that rising alcohol content of wine may be a nuisance by-product of producer responses to evolving market and production environments.

2. Honey Bee Colony Strength in the California Almond Pollination Market

Honey bee colony strength is an important factor in almond pollination decisions due to increased pollination efficiency of larger colonies. Growers use contract provisions to secure a minimum level of colony strength, thus making strength an influential component of the overall colony supply and demand which has not been considered in previous economic analyses.

3. Taxing Bottled Water as an Environmental Policy

Litter from plastic water bottles is an environmental concern for cities and states throughout the country. One potential policy response to this issue is to implement a consumer tax on bottled water in hopes that the subsequent reduction in total sales translates into less litter. We explore evidence from Washington state to analyze how effective and efficient a consumer tax on bottled water is as an environmental policy.

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