Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics
ARE Update Volume 18, Number 6
- Author(s): Crespi, John
- Saitone, Tina
- Sexton, Richard J
- Hooker, Brandon
- Wong, Andrew
- Martin, Philip
- Carman, Hoy
- Editor(s): McNamara, Julie
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttp://s.giannini.ucop.edu/uploads/giannini_public/6d/1e/6d1ed400-5715-4afc-9a9e-0afdab20869d/v18n6.pdf
1. The Supreme Court's Decision in the ‘Raisin Case': What Does it Mean for Mandatory Marketing Programs?
In Horne et al. v. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Raisin Marketing Order's volume-control program constituted an illegal taking of private property. We discuss the rationale for theprogram, the Court's opinion, and what this decision means for volume controls enacted under marketing order provisions, as well as the other functions that marketing orders commonly perform.
2. California Farm Labor: Jobs and Workers
The combination of labor-intensive crops, tighter border controls, and new programs that may give some unauthorized foreigners a temporary legal status has increased interest in the number of farm workers and theirstability. During the 1990s, there were an average three unique farm workers or Social Security Numbers reported by California farm employers for each year-round equivalent farm job. Analysis of data for 2007 and 2012 find two workers per job, a significant increase in stability. The ratio of workers to jobs may fall further as farmers mechanize, offer higher wages and benefits to retain current workers, or turn to guest workers.
3. The Evolving Legal Organization of California Farms: Corporations and LLCs
California corporate farms continue to grow in terms of numbers, share of all farms, acreage, and product sales. The average California corporate farm is larger than the average single proprietor and partnership farm, but all three organizational forms are represented in each of the size, asset and product sales categories from smallest to largest. Many California farms now realize some corporate advantages through organization as a Limited Liability Company.