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Open Access Publications from the University of California

[Solution] End-to-end Scheduling of Real-time Task Pipelines on Multiprocessors


Task pipelines are common in today’s embedded systems, as data moves from source to sink in sensing-processing-actuation task chains. A real-time task pipeline is constructed by connecting a series of periodic tasks with data buffers. In a time-critical system, end-to-end timing and data-transfer properties of a task pipeline must be guaranteed. A guarantee could be mathematically expressed by assigning constraints to the tasks of a pipeline. However, deriving task scheduling parameters to meet end-to-end guarantees is an NP-hard constraint optimization problem. Hence, a traditional constraint solver is not a suitable runtime solution.

In this paper, we present a heuristic constraint solver algorithm, CoPi, to derive the execution times and periods of pipelined tasks that meet the end-to-end constraints and schedulability requirements. We consider two upper bound constraints on a task pipeline: end-to-end delay and loss-rate. After satisfying these constraints, CoPi schedules a pipeline as a set of asynchronous and data independent periodic tasks, under the rate-monotonic scheduling algorithm. Simulations show that CoPi has a comparable pipeline acceptance ratio and significantly better runtime than open-source MINLPsolvers. Furthermore, we use CoPi to map multiple task pipelines to a multiprocessor system. We demonstrate that a partitioned multiprocessor scheduling algorithm coupled with CoPi accommodates dynamically appearing pipelines, while attempting to minimize task migrations.

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