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Heterozygous WNT1 variant causing a variable bone phenotype


Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a family of heritable disorders of bone fragility. Most individuals with OI have mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen; at least 17 other genes have been associated with OI. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in WNT1 cause severe OI. Heterozygous missense variants in WNT1 are responsible for early-onset osteoporosis with variable bone phenotypes. Herein, we report a third-generation family with four affected individuals, some presenting with multiple low-impact fractures in childhood and others presenting with early-onset osteoporosis without a striking fracture history. A WNT1 variant (c. 1051 > C; p.Trp351Arg) was identified in the proband and segregated with a bone phenotype in three additional family members, consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. In the proband, whole genome sequencing also revealed a de novo duplication (434 kb) of 22q11.2 that involves 25 genes, 4 of which are associated with human disease when haploinsufficient. Though smaller than the typical (1.5 Mb) 22q11.2 duplication, the duplication in the proband may be responsible for additional nonosseous aspects of his phenotype (hypotonia, developmental delay, small genitalia, strabismus, and depression in preadolescence). This case demonstrates the variability of bone phenotype conferred by a WNT1 variant and extends the spectrum of bone phenotypes associated with heterozygous WNT1 mutations.

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