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Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes Among Clients and Staff at New York Addiction Treatment Programs Following a Smoking Ban: Findings After 5 Years.

  • Author(s): Pagano, Anna
  • Guydish, Joseph
  • Le, Thao
  • Tajima, Barbara
  • Passalacqua, Emma
  • Soto-Nevarez, Arturo
  • Brown, Lawrence S
  • Delucchi, Kevin L
  • et al.

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INTRODUCTION:Addiction treatment clients are more likely to die of tobacco-related diseases than of alcohol or illicit drug-related causes. We aimed to assess smoking behavior, and smoking-related attitudes and services, in New York addiction treatment programs before a statewide smoking ban in treatment facilities was implemented (2008), 1 year (2009) and 5 years after implementation (2013). METHODS:We conducted surveys at each time point with clients (N = 329, 341, and 353, respectively) and staff (N = 202, 203, and 166, respectively) from five residential and two methadone maintenance programs in New York State. At each data collection wave, questionnaires measured smoking behavior as well as smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and experiences with tobacco cessation services as part of addiction treatment. RESULTS:Staff smoking prevalence decreased from 35.2% in 2008 to 21.8% in 2013 (P = .005) while client smoking prevalence over the same period was unchanged (68.1% vs. 66.0%, P = .564). Among clients who smoked, mean cigarettes per day decreased from 13.7 (SD = 8.38) to 10.2 (SD = 4.44; P < .001). There were significant time-by-treatment-type interactions for client tobacco-related attitudes and cessation services received; and for staff self-efficacy and cessation services provided. In residential programs, scores for most items decreased (became less positive) in 2009 followed by a partial rebound in 2013. Methadone program scores tended to rise (become more positive) throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS:Staff and clients may respond differentially to tobacco-free policies depending on type of treatment program, and this finding may help to inform the implementation of tobacco-free policies in other statewide addiction treatment systems.

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