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A New Strategy for High-Voltage Cathodes for K-Ion Batteries: Stoichiometric KVPO4F

  • Author(s): Kim, H
  • Seo, DH
  • Bianchini, M
  • Clément, RJ
  • Kim, H
  • Kim, JC
  • Tian, Y
  • Shi, T
  • Yoon, WS
  • Ceder, G
  • et al.
Abstract

© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim The exploration of high-energy-density cathode materials is vital to the practical use of K-ion batteries. Layered K-metal oxides have too high a voltage slope due to their large K+–K+ interaction, resulting in low specific capacity and average voltage. In contrast, the 3D arrangement of K+, with polyanions separating them, reduces the strength of the effective K+-K+ repulsion, which in turn increases specific capacity and voltage. Here, stoichiometric KVPO4F for use as a high-energy-density K-ion cathode is developed. The KVPO4F cathode delivers a reversible capacity of ≈105 mAh g−1 with an average voltage of ≈4.3 V (vs K/K+), resulting in a gravimetric energy density of ≈450 Wh kg−1. During electrochemical cycling, the KxVPO4F cathode goes through various intermediate phases at x = 0.75, 0.625, and 0.5 upon K extraction and reinsertion, as determined by ex situ X-ray diffraction characterization and ab initio calculations. This work further explains the role of oxygen substitution in KVPO4+xF1−x: the oxygenation of KVPO4F leads to an anion-disordered structure which prevents the formation of K+/vacancy orderings without electrochemical plateaus and hence to a smoother voltage profile.

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