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Low pressure vapor-assisted solution process for tunable band gap pinholefree methylammonium lead halide perovskite films

  • Author(s): Sutter-Fella, CM
  • Li, Y
  • Cefarin, N
  • Buckley, A
  • Ngo, QP
  • Javey, A
  • Sharp, ID
  • Toma, FM
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://doi.org/10.3791/55404
Abstract

© 2017 Journal of Visualized Experiments. Organo-lead halide perovskites have recently attracted great interest for potential applications in thin-film photovoltaics and optoelectronics. Herein, we present a protocol for the fabrication of this material via the low-pressure vapor assisted solution process (LP-VASP) method, which yields ~19% power conversion efficiency in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. First, we report the synthesis of methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I) and methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) from methylamine and the corresponding halide acid (HI or HBr). Then, we describe the fabrication of pinhole-free, continuous methylammonium-lead halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3with X = I, Br, Cl and their mixture) films with the LP-VASP. This process is based on two steps: i) spin-coating of a homogenous layer of lead halide precursor onto a substrate, and ii) conversion of this layer to CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx by exposing the substrate to vapors of a mixture of CH3NH3I and CH3NH3Br at reduced pressure and 120 °C. Through slow diffusion of the methylammonium halide vapor into the lead halide precursor, we achieve slow and controlled growth of a continuous, pinhole-free perovskite film. The LP-VASP allows synthetic access to the full halide composition space in CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx with 0 ≤ x ≤ 3. Depending on the composition of the vapor phase, the bandgap can be tuned between 1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV. In addition, by varying the composition of the halide precursor and of the vapor phase, we can also obtain CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. Films obtained from the LP-VASP are reproducible, phase pure as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements, and show high photoluminescence quantum yield. The process does not require the use of a glovebox.

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