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The Role of Oxidative Stress in Pancreatic β Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes.

  • Author(s): Eguchi, Natsuki;
  • Vaziri, Nosratola D;
  • Dafoe, Donald C;
  • Ichii, Hirohito
  • et al.
Abstract

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by inappropriately elevated glucose levels as a result of impaired pancreatic β cell function and insulin resistance. Extensive studies have been conducted to elucidate the mechanism involved in the development of β cell failure and death under diabetic conditions such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and inflammation. Of the plethora of proposed mechanisms, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress have been shown to play a central role in promoting β cell dysfunction. It has become more evident in recent years that these 3 factors are closely interrelated and importantly aggravate each other. Oxidative stress in particular is of great interest to β cell health and survival as it has been shown that β cells exhibit lower antioxidative capacity. Therefore, this review will focus on discussing factors that contribute to the development of oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells and explore the downstream effects of oxidative stress on β cell function and health. Furthermore, antioxidative capacity of β cells to counteract these effects will be discussed along with new approaches focused on preserving β cells under oxidative conditions.

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