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Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Does Not Increase Child Morbidity in a Semiurban Setting in Ghana: A Secondary Outcome Noninferiority Analysis of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS)-DYAD Randomized Controlled Trial.

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Adequate knowledge about the safety of consumption of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) is needed.


We aimed to test the hypothesis that SQ-LNS consumption is noninferior to control with respect to child morbidity.


Women (n = 1320) ≤20 wk pregnant were assigned to iron and folic acid until delivery with no supplementation for offspring; or multiple micronutrient supplements until 6 mo postpartum with no supplementation for offspring; or SQ-LNSs until 6 mo postpartum, and SQ-LNSs for offspring (6 mg Fe/d) from 6 to 18 mo of age [the lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) group]. We assessed noninferiority (margin ≤20%) between any 2 groups during 0-6 mo of age, and between the non-LNS and LNS groups during 6-18 mo of age for caregiver-reported acute respiratory infection, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, fever/suspected malaria, poor appetite, and "other illnesses."


During 0-6 mo of age, 1197 infants contributed 190,503 infant-days. For all morbidity combined, overall mean incidence (per 100 infant-days) was 3.3 episodes, overall mean prevalence (percentage of infant-days) was 19.3%, and the 95% CIs of the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and longitudinal prevalence rate ratio (LPRR) between any 2 groups were ≤1.20. During 6-18 mo, there were 240,097 infant-days for the non-LNS group and 118,698 for the LNS group. For all morbidity combined, group mean incidences were 4.3 and 4.3, respectively (IRR: 1.0; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.1), and mean prevalences were 28.2% and 29.3%, respectively (LPRR: 1.0; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.1). Noninferiority was inconclusive for diarrhea, fever/suspected malaria, and poor appetite.


SQ-LNS consumption does not increase reported overall child morbidity in this population compared with the 2 other treatments.This trial was registered at as NCT00970866.

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