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The role of APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma progression

  • Author(s): Yang, Z
  • Yang, S
  • Misner, BJ
  • Liu-Smith, F
  • Meyskens, FL
  • et al.
Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a third of the estimated cancer-caused deaths worldwide. To deeply understand the mechanisms controlling HCC progression is of primary importance to develop new approaches for treatment. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox effector factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) has been uncovered elevated in various types of cancer, including HCC. Additionally, HCC progression is always correlated with elevated copper (Cu). Our previous data demonstrated that Cu treatment initiated APE/Ref-1 expression and its downstream targets. Therefore, we hypothesized that APE/Ref-1 may be involved in HCC progression through mediating the effect of Cu to its signaling cascades. Following different treatments, human HCC cell line (Hep3B) and immortalized non-malignant hepatocyte cell line (THLE3) were analyzed to explore the role of APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway. Unstained human tissue microarrays (TMA) were subjected to IHC analysis to study the relationship between APE/Ref-1 expression and clinic features. APE/Ref-1 was upregulated in HCC cells consistent with the strong expression of APE/Ref-1 in HCC tissue microarray. Greater cytoplasmic accumulation of APE/Ref-1 was found in poorly differentiated and more aggressive tumors. Also we provide evidence to show that APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway stimulates cellular proliferation, enhances antiapoptosis, and facilitates metastasis through experimental knockdown of APE/Ref-1 using siRNA in Hep3B cells or overexpressing APE/Ref-1 in THLE3 cells. These results define a novel role of APE/Ref-1 in HCC progression as being an important mediating and potentiating molecule, and also provide a basis for further investigations utilizing appropriate APE/Ref-1 inhibitors in combination with chemo-drugs for HCC treatment.

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