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Pharmacological characterization of hydrolysis-resistant analogs of oleoylethanolamide with potent anorexiant properties.

  • Author(s): Astarita, Giuseppe
  • Di Giacomo, Barbara
  • Gaetani, Silvana
  • Oveisi, Fariba
  • Compton, Timothy R
  • Rivara, Silvia
  • Tarzia, Giorgio
  • Mor, Marco
  • Piomelli, Daniele
  • et al.

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator that reduces food intake, promotes lipolysis, and decreases body weight gain in rodents by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha). The biological effects of OEA are terminated by two intracellular lipid hydrolase enzymes, fatty-acid amide hydrolase and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase. In the present study, we describe OEA analogs that resist enzymatic hydrolysis, activate PPAR-alpha with high potency in vitro, and persistently reduce feeding when administered in vivo either parenterally or orally. The most potent of these compounds, (Z)-(R)-9-octadecenamide,N-(2-hydroxyethyl,1-methyl) (KDS-5104), stimulates transcriptional activity of PPAR-alpha with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 100 +/- 21 nM (n = 11). Parenteral administration of KDS-5104 in rats produces persistent dose-dependent prolongation of feeding latency and postmeal interval (half-maximal effective dose, ED50 = 2.4 +/- 1.8 mg kg(-1) i.p.; n = 18), as well as increased and protracted tissue exposure compared with OEA. Oral administration of the compound also results in a significant tissue exposure and reduction of food intake in free-feeding rats. These results suggest that the endogenous high-affinity PPAR-alpha agonist OEA may provide a scaffold for the discovery of novel orally active PPAR-alpha ligands.

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