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Variable clinical features of patients with Fabry disease and outcome of enzyme replacement therapy.


Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme α-galactosidase A due to mutations in the GLA gene. This leads to an accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in many tissues, which results in progressive damage to the kidneys, heart, and nervous system. We present the molecular and clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of FD patients from a multidisciplinary clinic at the University of California, Irvine treated with agalsidase beta enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for 2-20 years. This cohort comprised 24 adults (11 males, 13 females) and two male children (median age 45; range 10-68 years). Of the 26 patients in this cohort, 20 were on ERT (12 males, 8 females). We describe one novel variant not previously reported in the literature in a patient with features of 'classic' FD. The vast majority of patients in this cohort presented with symptoms of 'classic' FD including peripheral neuropathic pain, some form of cardiac involvement, angiokeratomas, corneal verticillata, hypohidrosis, tinnitus, and gastrointestinal symptoms, primarily abdominal pain. The majority of males had clinically evident renal involvement. An annual eGFR reduction of -1.88 mL/min/1.73 m2/yr during the course of ERT was seen in this cohort. The most common renal presentation was proteinuria, and one individual required a renal transplant. Other common findings were pulmonary involvement, lymphedema, hearing loss, and significantly, three patients had strokes. Notably, there was a high prevalence of endocrine dysfunction and low bone mineral density, including several with osteoporosis. While enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) cleared plasma GL-3 in this cohort, there was limited improvement in renal function or health-related quality of life based on the patient-reported SF-36 Health Survey. Physical functioning significantly declined over the course of ERT treatment, which may be, in part, due to the late initiation of ERT in several patients. Further delineation of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum in patients with FD and the long-term outcome of ERT will help improve management and treatment options for this disease.

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