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Universal Tripartite Entanglement in One-Dimensional Many-Body Systems


Motivated by conjectures in holography relating the entanglement of purification and reflected entropy to the entanglement wedge cross section, we introduce two related non-negative measures of tripartite entanglement g and h. We prove structure theorems which show that states with nonzero g or h have nontrivial tripartite entanglement. We then establish that in one dimension these tripartite entanglement measures are universal quantities that depend only on the emergent low-energy theory. For a gapped system, we argue that either g≠0 and h=0 or g=h=0, depending on whether the ground state has long-range order. For a critical system, we develop a numerical algorithm for computing g and h from a lattice model. We compute g and h for various CFTs and show that h depends only on the central charge whereas g depends on the whole operator content.

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