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Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Creative Commons 'BY-NC-ND' version 4.0 license

Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased cardiovascular prevalence and mortality. However, this relationship is different between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. While classical and diabetes-related cardiovascular risk factors are associated with cardiovascular events in both diabetes type, it is unclear how diabetes type plays a role in the prevalence of these cardiovascular risk factors.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in adults, performing a novel method for diabetes type classification.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2016 that completed the medical examinations, laboratory tests, and the diabetes questionnaire.

Results: A total of 5347 adult participants (age ≥ 20) with diagnosed diabetes were included. Our algorithm classified 230 as type 1 diabetes and 4677 as type 2 diabetes mellitus cases (remaining 440 were excluded). Higher age, triglycerides level, Body Mass Index, and being from races other than White were indicative of type 2 diabetes mellitus, while longer diabetes duration, higher HbA1c rate, more prevalent of chronic kidney disease and having higher education were more indicative of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Lipid panel disturbances, Chronic Kidney Disease, and insulin resistance appeared more prevalent in type 1 diabetes mellitus cohort as previously described.

Conclusion: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors differs by diabetes type and have also attested temporal trends. Diabetes type should be considered in cardiovascular disease risk assessments and preventions.

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