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Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Television Campaign to Promote Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Among the Elderly

  • Author(s): Kim, M
  • Yoo, BK
  • et al.
Abstract

© 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. Background The U.S. policy goals regarding influenza vaccination coverage rate among the elderly include the increase in the coverage rate and the elimination of disparities across racial/ethnic groups. Objective To examine the potential effectiveness of a television (TV) campaign to increase seasonal influenza vaccination among the elderly. Methods We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER, defined as incremental cost per additionally vaccinated Medicare individual) of a hypothetical nationwide TV campaign for influenza vaccination compared with no campaign. We measured the effectiveness of the nationwide TV campaign (advertised once a week at prime time for 30 seconds) during a 17-week influenza vaccination season among four racial/ethnic elderly groups (N=39 million): non-Hispanic white (W), non-Hispanic African American (AA), English-speaking Hispanic (EH), and Spanish-speaking Hispanic (SH). Results The hypothetical campaign cost was $5,960,000 (in 2012 US dollars). The estimated campaign effectiveness ranged from -1.1% (the SH group) to 1.42% (the W group), leading to an increased disparity in influenza vaccination among non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic African American (W-AA) groups (0.6 percentage points), W-EH groups (0.1 percentage points), and W-SH groups (1.5 percentage points). The estimated ICER was $23.54 (95% confidence interval $14.21-$39.37) per additionally vaccinated Medicare elderly in a probabilistic analysis. Race/ethnicity-specific ICERs were lowest among the EH group ($22.27), followed by the W group ($22.47) and the AA group ($30.55). The nationwide TV campaign was concluded to be reasonably cost-effective compared with a benchmark intervention (with ICER $44.39 per vaccinated individual) of a school-located vaccination program. Break-even analyses estimated the maximum acceptable campaign cost to be $14,870,000, which was comparable to the benchmark ICER. Conclusions The results could justify public expenditures on the implementation of a future nationwide TV campaign, which should include multilingual campaigns, for promoting seasonal influenza vaccination.

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