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Macrophages regulate lung ILC2 activation via Pla2g5-dependent mechanisms


Group V phospholipase A2 (Pla2g5) is a lipid-generating enzyme necessary for macrophage effector functions in pulmonary inflammation. However, the lipid mediators involved and their cellular targets have not been identified. Mice lacking Pla2g5 showed markedly reduced lung ILC2 activation and eosinophilia following repetitive Alternaria Alternata inhalation. While Pla2g5-null mice had Wt levels of immediate IL-33 release after one Alternaria dose, they failed to upregulate IL-33 in macrophages following repeated Alternaria administration. Unexpectedly, while adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived (BM)-macrophages restored ILC2 activation and eosinophilia in Alternaria-exposed Pla2g5-null mice, exogenous IL-33 did not. Conversely, transfers of Pla2g5-null BM-macrophages reduced inflammation in Alternaria-exposed Wt mice. Mass spectrometry analysis of free fatty acids (FFAs) demonstrated significantly reduced FFAs (including linoleic acid (LA) and oleic acid (OA)) in lung and BM-macrophages lacking Pla2g5. Exogenous administration of LA or LA+OA to Wt mice sharply potentiated IL-33-induced lung eosinophilia and ILC2 expansion in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, OA potentiated IL-33-induced inflammation and ILC2 expansion in Pla2g5-null mice, but LA was inactive both in vivo and in vitro. Notably, Pla2g5-null ILC2s showed significantly reduced expression of the FFA-receptor-1 compared to Wt ILC2s. Thus, macrophage-associated Pla2g5 contributes significantly to type-2 immunity through regulation of IL-33 induction and FFA-driven ILC2 activation.

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